I saw the issue on your side.
But I’m unable to reproduce the issue on my end.
I need your help to identify this issue.
The RSS feed does not have any image, but somehow something is manipulating the result.
I need to check if it is because of someother RSS feed related plugin.
For this I need to login and check the issue.
Can you please create a temp admin user account and share me the username and password to my contact form ?
I’ll check and make a workaround.