Yes that would be possible. This can be only done in a static way (i.e copy the post content and paste it as shortcode content). It is not possible to dynamically fetch the post content. Shortcoder cannot be used for that purpose.
Shortcoder is useful if you have a huge text/HTML which you want to create a short portable code.
You can use a plugin like “display posts” to fetch the content using a shortcode.